Shrubs – Age/Condition

As for trees, some shrubs are grown from seed, others from cuttings. These shrubs are therefore available as seedlings, cuttings and transplants.  The conventions for specifying shrubs grown from seed or cuttings are the same as those for Trees.

Within these definitions the following conventions are followed:  + or / indicates transplanting; u or = indicates undercutting.

Description Definition
1+0 or 1/0 A one year old seedling which has not been transplanted.
1+0= or 1/0= A one year old undercut seedling
1u1 A two year old seedling, undercut after one year but not transplanted from the seedbed
2+0 or 2/0 A two year old seedling which has not been transplanted.
2u2 A four year old seedling, undercut after two years but not transplanted from the seedbed
0/1 A one year old hardwood cutting which has not been transplanted
0/2 A two year old hardwood cutting which has not been transplanted
1+1 or 1/1 2 year old seedling transplant; one year in seedbed, transplanted and grown on for one year
1+2 or 1/2 3 year old seeding transplant; one year in seedbed, transplanted and grown on for two years
2+1 or 2/1 3 year old seedling transplant, two years in seedbed, transplanted and grown on for one year
2+2 or 2/2 4 year old seedling transplant, two years in seedbed, transplanted and grown on for two years
0/1/1 2 year old cutting transplant, one year in cutting bed, transplanted and grown on for one year
0/1/2 3 year old cutting transplant, one year in cutting bed, transplanted and grown on for two years
0/2/1 3 year old cutting transplant, two years in cutting bed, transplanted and grown on for one year

Seedlings

The majority of shrubs are grown from cuttings (typically semi-ripe) but some species are grown from seed.  Often these are native species or others for which plentiful supplies of viable seed are available.  Although these are available as seedlings, specified as the table below indicates, they are more often sold as Transplants.  Typical species grown from seed include:  Amelanchier canadensis, Berberis thunbergii, Cornus sanguinea, Cotoneaster franchetii, Rosa canina, Rosa rugosa, Euonymus europaeus.

Cuttings

Hardwood cuttings, taken in November/December, are a method of propagating shrubs which root easily. Typical shrubs sold in this way include Cornus alba and its cvs., Cornus stolonifera ‘Flaviramea’, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Forsythia ‘Lynwood’,Ribes cvs., Sambucus nigra ‘Aurea’, Symphoricarpos x chenaultii ‘Hancock’, Salix elaeagnos.

Transplants (Seedling-propagated)

These are typical young and relatively cheap plants which are available bagged (bareroot) for extensive landscape planting of shrubs.

Transplants (Cutting-propagated)

Hardwood cuttings, like seed raised shrubs, are lifted, cut back and re-planted at a wider spacing to create a more robust, taller/bushier plant, appropriate for landscape planting.

No. times Transplanted (x transplanted)

Transplanting (or undercutting) encourages a compact and fibrous root system and enables the easier and more successful supply and establishment of large shrubs. The majority of shrubs are sold within three years of propagation, but a number are field grown on to Specimen size and then lifted, with a rootball. These larger shrubs should be transplanted between 2 and 5 times, depending on species and height. Such shrubs must be transplanted every three years.